Using a statistical mathematics formula, percentage pedigrees are often turned into what is called a Coefficient pedigree. This ratio type format assigns a numbered ratio of influence to the repeated members of an individual’s heritage. This ratio is particularly important in calculating the amount of “inbreeding” in a potential mating. The coefficient of any breeding can be done by the breeder by hand or done by computer program. However, it is a mathematics task many breeders find a bit daunting. Many breeder computer programs do this for breeders and provide handy calculations for the pedigree student. Inbreeding is usually considered any Coefficient over 0.25 or more. This number is far more accurate than considering the relative relationship of the mated pair because each canine born into a litter actually represents an individual birth. Each littermate has an individual placenta and his or her own genetic pattern. Sometimes littermates are actually no more genetically related than some distant cousins within their breed. Thus, using the ‘brother to sister’ formula for close inbreeding does not always calculate accurately or realistically.